There is this relatively new software, Affinity that’s pretty good candidate as an Adobe substitute if you are looking for a non-subscription model. Their current applications are Affinity Photo, Designer, and Publisher. I’m currently most interested in Photo.
You can download them for a 90 trial.
The Affinity Photo has some nice features that Adobe Photoshop still hasn’t addressed over the years. Raw editing, true HDR workflow, and 32-bit workflow.
What’s nice is you can import/export PSD/PSB file formats and it supports ABR brushes, so you can have the best of both applications.
You can see the UI is very similar to Photoshop so working in it it’s hard at all.
The cost of the software is pretty affordable, just $50. You can purchase these apps at a 50% discount now. They are available for Mac, PC, and iPad. It is not a subscription model. It is a single one-off price. You have full capability whether on PC, Mac or Ipad.
Download for free and see what you think. For me the HDR and 32-bit capability alone is worth looking into.